Gastroenterology Hemorrhoids Kartik Goyal

What Are Hemorrhoids? Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Hemorrhoids are enlarged, swollen veins in the rectum or around the anus. They are usually brought on by pressure on the veins, similar to the pressure that results from trying to expel a bowel movement. They may have been referred to as piles.

Blood vessel tissue is a typical component of our anatomy. It is believed to hold stool in when we are not having a bowel movement and to cushion muscles when we do. Hemorrhoids typically go undetected until they swell.

Hemorrhoids are a very common condition that gets worse with age. The majority of people will eventually experience hemorrhoids, even if they may not show any symptoms. Hemorrhoids are estimated to be visible in 50% of all persons over the age of 50.

Hemorrhoids are frequently experienced by pregnant women, although they usually go away after childbirth.

Hemorrhoids come in two main variants:

  • Internal: Inside the rectum hemorrhoids. Typically, they go unnoticed.
  • External: Hemorrhoids in the anus-region tissue.

What causes hemorrhoids?

Hemorrhoids could be the result of anything that puts strain on the veins in and around the rectum and anus. Your risk of having them increases as you age.

Common cause include:

  • Sitting for too long
  • Straining with bowel movements
  • Chronic constipation or diarrhea
  • Obesity
  • Pregnancy
  • Regular, heavy lifting
  • A diet lacking fiber
  • Anal intercourse
  • Liver disease
  • Family history of hemorrhoids

Hemorrhoid Symptoms

There could be several varieties, and each type could have a different set of symptoms. A vicious cycle of symptoms can start with itching brought on by edema. Scratching, incorrect cleaning or no cleaning at all may make ititch worse. The itching could lead to more bleeding and irritation.

Internal hemorrhoids are typically not noticeable unless they emerge from the anus. Itching or scratching might potentially cause the veins to become strained or broken, which could lead to apparent bleeding. If you have bleeding hemorrhoids, you may notice blood in the toilet bowl, on the toilet paper, or in your stool.

External hemorrhoids may cause:

  • Irritation
  • Itching
  • Pain or discomfort
  • Protrusion or hard lump near the anus
  • Rectal bleeding
  • Swelling around the anus

Prolapsed hemorrhoids may cause:

  • Pain or discomfort
  • Bulging that you can feel outside the anus

How to Diagnose Hemorrhoids

Some hemorrhoid symptoms can also be brought on by other, more serious illnesses like colon cancer. It’s crucial to discuss your symptoms with your healthcare physician to rule out any potential reasons. Sometimes your symptoms and a physical examination can detect hemorrhoids, but you could also need additional tests.

  • Physical exam 
  • Digital rectal exam (DRE)
  • Anoscopy or proctoscopy
  • Sigmoidoscopy 
  • Colonoscopy

Home Remedies

With simple lifestyle changes and over-the-counter medicines, mild symptoms can frequently be successfully treated at home. Before beginning any treatment, it’s essential to receive a diagnosis, especially if you are bleeding or have never had hemorrhoids before.

  • Eat high-fiber foods
  • Fiber supplements
  • Good personal hygiene
  • Hemorrhoid Cream
  • Warm Sitz Bath
  • Laxatives
  • Pain Relievers
  • Use a step stool

Minimally Invasive Treatments

Pain relief and other hemorrhoid-related symptoms may not always be fully achieved by using home remedies. It is necessary to remove hemorrhoids that are prolapsed or that bleed excessively. In-office removal techniques are possible in some cases.

Hemorrhoid banding

A special applicator is used to pinch the root of the hemorrhoid in a small rubber band during hemorrhoid banding, also known as band ligation.


Endoscopy: A little, flexible tube will be inserted into your rectum by your doctor. Hemorrhoids can be removed using the tube, which has a tiny camera and is compatible with small tools.

Laser, infrared, or bipolar coagulation

Hemorrhoids are reduced with these procedures using infrared radiation, heat, or a laser. The hemorrhoids will gradually stiffen, shrivel, and fall off following treatment.


A chemical solution is injected into the hemorrhoid during sclerotherapy, causing it to contract and leave behind a scar.

The doctors for hemorrhoids in Ludhiana may recommend a hemorrhoidectomy if home remedies and minimally invasive office procedures are ineffective. Piles Treatment in Ludhiana reduces extra tissue that contributes to bleeding Although it usually works, it can be painful.